In the latter half of the 18th century, Madras became an important British naval base, and the administrative centre of the growing British dominions in southern India. On this piece of wasteland was founded Fort St. George, a fortified settlement of British merchants, factory workers, and other colonial settlers. In 1906, the city experienced a financial crisis with the failure of its leading merchant bank, Arbuthnot & Co. In 1674, the expanded colony had nearly 50,000 mostly British and European colonists and was granted its own corporate charter, thereby officially establishing the modern day city. Mylapore was a major port of the Pallava. Spencer's started as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time. Because of its importance to the East India Company, the French plundered and destroyed the village of Chepauk and Blacktown, the locality across from the port where all the dockyard labourers used to live.[8]. The name Madras was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras. [12] In 1953, the political and administrative dominance of Tamils, both at the Union and State levels ensured that Madras was not transferred to the new state of Andhra. However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. The Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, then became independent rulers of Kanchipuram and its surrounding areas. Madras . The Archdiocese of Madras and the Diocese of Mylapore was amalgamated and established as the “Archdiocese of Madras-Mylapore”. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. In the early 17th century Beri Thimmappa of the Puragiri Kshatriya (Perike) caste migrated to the locality from Palacole, near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. It is a major manufacturing centre. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. The demands for the immediate creation of a Telugu-speaking state were met with after Tirupati was included in Andhra State and after the leaders who led the movement were convinced to give up their claim on Madras. Rajaji worked closely with Yakub Hasan, the founder of the Madras branch of the Muslim League. [14], Chennai's earlier name of Madras is similarly mired in controversy. To further consolidate their position, the Company combined the various settlements around an expanded Fort St. George, which including its citadel also included a larger outside area surrounded by an additional wall. (History of Tamil Nadu 1565 - 1982: Professor K.Rajayyan, Head of the School of Historical Studies, M.K.University, Madurai - Raj Publishers, Madurai, 1982) Today an estimated 80 million Tamils live in many lands - more than 50 million Tamils live in Tamil Nadu in South India and around 3 million reside in the island of Sri Lanka. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Architecture photos available for quick and easy download. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. Similar to the versions of the origin of the name Madras, there are various such versions related to the origin of the name Chennai as well. The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. Set on the Bay of Bengal and first developed from the British Fort St. George, the site of the modern city of Chennai was once home to a collection of fishing and agricultural villages. Eventually, after additional provocations from Golkonda, the British pushed back until they defeated him. The region of Tamil Nadu (now one of the states in the south of the Republic of India) has been under continuous human habitation since prehistoric times. Bibliography on Tamil History, Ethnicity, Culture, Srilankan Tamils and Tamilnadu Politics, posted by Tamil Electronic Library ... Madras Presidency, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.158-159 (data of 1926-1928); India and Dependencies : Madras States, ibid. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.[2][3]. 1 Loction 2 Earlier 3 Population 4 Well known for It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Although the original inhabitants of Madras and responsible for its growth into the modern metropolis of today, the British and European nationals are virtually non-existent. (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India) Formerly known as Madras, the modern city of Chennai has a long history as a settled area, beginning more than 1,000 years ago. Known as the “Gateway to South India,” Chennai is a major administrative and cultural centre. Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. Dhanu is widely believed to have been an LTTE member. Dhanu. The grant expired, and Ivy sent Factor Greenhill on a mission to Chandragiri to meet the new Raja and to get the grant renewed. Overview. Although they remained in control of the original corporations and businesses of Madras, and were the official representatives of the Imperial government, their communities size relative to the larger Indian population in Madras ensured their eventual demise should democratic control be given to Indian nationalities in place of the older Colonial charters. (iii) The Madras Mahajana Sabha demanded conduct of civil services examinations only in India. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. According to the treaty, only Europeans, principally Protestant British settlers were allowed to live in this area as outside of this confine, non-Indians were not allowed to own property. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Although the British had lost most of their well-populated, industrious, and wealthy North American colonies, after a decade's feud with the French, they were securely in control of Madras and most of the Indian trade. This was also surrounded by a wall. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. Subsequent to Ilam Tiraiyan, the region was ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. CHIDAMBARAM ANNIE BESANT The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this organization. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. History about Chennai. Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. So, he suggested that the name ought to be ‘Tamil Nadu-Madras State’. Francis Day wrote to his headquarters at Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site at Madraspatnam and to examine the possibilities of trade there. The English translation of the motto of the University of Madras is: "Learning promotes (one's) natural (innate) talent." Sivaraja Pillai, Sri.S. Madras Tamil 232,814 views. Speaking on the debate, Opposition Leader P.G. Elihu Yale, after whom Yale University is named, was British governor of Madras for five years. It was named after the Christian leader of reforms, St. Thomas who preached in the area between 52 and 70 A.D. Ellāḷaṉ statue in the premises of Madras High Court. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Chief Minister. These settlers and their families spread throughout India or settled in the cities, with Madras being one of their principal entry points. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi who in turn granted new Charters and territorial borders for the area. However, from 1960s, the Central government started gearing up the use of Hindi in business and government. Madras was called as Madras Province which comprised earlier the south Indian states of Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andra Pradesh, and Karnataka. Madras translation in English-Tamil dictionary. Tanjore Big Temple Mysteries - Secret of Cholas - … They requested Day and the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu to wait until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam in Java could be obtained for their action. Because the Raja operated an arbitrary and capricious legal code which fundamentally discriminated against private property, trade, and merchandising in general, and against non-Indians in particular, the new grant signed in 1645 expanded the rights of the English by empowering them to administer English Common Law amongst their colonists and Civil Law between the colonists and the other European, Muslim, and Hindu nationalities. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was a lack of money. Contact our Advertising team for Advertising or Sponsorship on Network. In turn, the Madras Stock Exchange was established in 1920. In the latter part of the 17th century, Madras steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. During 16th and 18th century, Madras was ruled by Portuguese and Frenchmen. Therefore, because of the fort's proximity or origin to the village of Mandraspatnam, and the fort's centrality to the development of the city, the British settlers of the city later named their settlement Madras in honour of it. The Early History of Madras (Chennai) Fort St. George, in Madras (Chennai) on the Coromandel Coast, India (1753) About 1620 the East India Company established another factory at Masulipatam on the eastern side of India. The arrival of the railway in India during the 19th century helped the city to connect with other crucial cities like Mumbai and Kolkata which encouraged communication and trading in the surrounding area. They reached Madraspatnam on 20 February 1640; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place. Anavaratanayakam Pillai, Sri.S. The Vijayanagar rulers who controlled the area, appointed chieftains known as Nayaks who ruled over the different regions of the province almost independently. In fact, in all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing around the Fort known as "White Town". (i) Madras Native Association was founded in 1852. 1st century CE was ruled under the Cholas. Those who uphold this theory favour the view that the Tamils belong to the Dravidian race and were part of the early Indus Valley settlers. Their small fortified settlement quickly attracted other East Indian traders and as the Dutch position collapsed under hostile Indian power they also slowly joined the settlement. Today, they are the … The Pandyas under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan rose to power and the region was brought under the Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in 1264. Nonetheless, as any purview of the city's and other major metropolitan cemeteries of India can attest, hundreds of thousands came to India between the 1600s (decade) and 1770s and later another million more came between 1770 and 1870. Millions of people starved to death throughout British ruled Tamil Nadu, around 3.9 million people perished in Chennai alone within two years of 1877–78.[9]. The 2004 tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai killing many. Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Army at the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLF and two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. Related: Madrasi. Lastly, while the Fort St. George, White Town, and Black Town areas were fully incorporated together by the late 18th century, and was known as Madras, Chennapatnam was its own separate entity existing under the authority of Fort St. George well into the 19th century. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. My Thoughts on Life, Travels and Culture. The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - Poo Iruntha valli), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - Thiru alli keni) are mentioned in Tamil bhakti literature of the 6th - 9th centuries.Thomas Pitt became the Governor of Madras in 1698 and governed for eleven years. But this time it was by the French under General La Bourdonnais, who used to be the Governor of Mauritius. ORIGIN OF ISC* By Prof. (Dr.) K. Chockalingam** Founder Secretary, ISC . The Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide, promulgated the Papal Bull, ‘Ex Primaevae Ecclesiae’ on 13th November 1952 during the reign of Pope Pius XII. Showing page 1. These magnum opuses looked at 100 years of the Tamil novel (1977) and the history and development of the Tamil short story (1989). When the Portuguese arrived in 1522, they built a port and named it São Tomé, after the Christian apostle St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached there between the years 52 and 70. Alternative Titles: Ceṉṉai, Madras, Madraspatnam Chennai, formerly Madras, city, capital of Tamil Nadu state, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. May 21, 2019 - 525 Likes, 7 Comments - Brown History (@brownhistory) on Instagram: “Portrait of a seated girl wearing Jewellery, from Madras in Tamil Nadu - 1872” Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). The civilisation of the Tamil people is among the oldest in the world and has been influenced by, influenced, and coexisted with many external cultures. Furthermore, it expanded the Company property by attaching an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (or 'Jackal-ground') which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. CC BY-SA 2.0. Vaiyapuri Pillai, Sri.R.P. In the Tamil language, the … Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. January 2021 0 0 Under the Kings, local chiefs or governors known as Nayaks ruled over each district. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.[7]. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. The next year, flush with funds won from the original British owners who had capitalized the bank, he organized a group of Chettiar merchants to found Indian Bank, with which he funded new Indian enterprises and broke into the previously closed ranks of the British financial system. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. Population of Telugu's and Tamils were more or less the same in those days, however dynamics of Madras city was changed post independence rapidly. As stipulated by the Treaty signed with the Nayak, the British and other Christian Europeans were not allowed to decorate the outside of their buildings in any other color but white.