Chilean lawyer Jenaro Gajardo Vera became famous for his 1953 claim of ownership of the Moon. , Dennis Hope, an American entrepreneur, sells extraterrestrial real estate. Which countries will take the lead and which will follow? So where will aspiring entrepreneurs want to base their firms? The Moon Premium Gift Package includes: Moon Deed: Legal document listing the location of the purchased Moon property by quadrant, lot number, latitude and longitude. China, for one, has already developed âsatellite killersâ â projectiles that can destroy satellites. This may sound technical, but itâs already, quite literally, the stuff of novels: The science-fiction book âArtemisâ by Andy Weir posits a future in which the country that ends up dominating the space industry is Kenya, by offering tax breaks and simplified regulations that the West wouldnât. Itâs almost inevitable that the bigger space powers, including the U.S., will lead in establishing benchmarks that others can abide by or copy in their own arrangements. The New Moon Race Who owns the moon? Thus, while it does not explicitly prohibit such schemes, the treaty does require they be authorized by the schemers' government. The 1976 Declaration of the First Meeting of Equatorial Countries, also known as the Bogotá Declaration, signed by several countries located on the Earth's equator, attempted to assert sovereignty over those portions of the geostationary orbit that continuously lie over the signatory nation's territory. Those who argue for new treaties or an international regulatory regime say existing frameworks are not strong enough to prevent inappropriate behavior and dangerous exploitation of space by private firms or even national governments. Moon River Property Owners Association - Based on the Moon River in the town of Bala, Ontario. A prominent environmental impact on extraterrestrial planets is space debris. Moon Shadows on Rush Lake, Home Owners' Association. , In 1997, Adam Ismail, Mustafa Khalil and Abdullah al-Umari, three men from Yemen, sued NASA for invading Mars. (The International Space Station is a prominent example of a multiparty arrangement beyond Earth.) Extraterrestrial real estate refers to claims of land ownership on other planets, natural satellites, or parts of spaceby certain organizations or individuals. The public sent offers to buy objects from him as well. Thatâs because while the 1967 Outer Space Treaty forbids the declaration of sovereignty over parts of the heavens, itâs been largely interpreted, in the West anyway, as being open-ended on what can be done with the resources found there.  These claims did not receive wider international support or recognition and were subsequently largely abandoned. If the property never belonged to anyone, like the Moon or the other eight planets, you must establish a legal basis of ownership. Left: A copy of a deed for an acre of the moon signed by Dennis Hope; Right: Hope with copies of a lunar property deed and a map of Mars. An effort to revise the existing treaty could prompt demands for a variety of changes from an array of players, bogging down what would have been a challenging process no matter what. (Think of Delawareâs outsized role in U.S. corporate governance, or the Swiss share of banking.) , Richard Garriott, computer game designer and astronaut's son, legitimately purchased the Lunokhod 2 lunar lander from the Russian Space Agency. Even if you donât seriously credit the idea that one man in Rio Vista, California, is sole proprietor of the moonâand most experts donâtâHopeâs quixotic career attests to the legal vacuum surrounding real estate that doesnât happen to be located on this planet. The document stresses that such heavenly bodies like the moon shall be used âexclusively for peaceful purposes.â. Or open a restaurant on Mars. - Extraterrestrial Aspects of Land and Mineral Resources Ownership… View listing photos, review sales history, and use our detailed real estate filters to find the perfect place. , The Outer Space Treaty established the basic ramifications for space activity in Article 1: "The exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind. Back in 1980, a … The United States, however, has dismissed those proposals as flawed and hypocritical, noting that Moscow and Beijing have been working on satellite and laser technology that could be weaponized. Our data sources provides you with the most up-to-date ownership details or info, and gives it to you with one click of a search button. Moon Lake, Lewiston Michigan . He has for years been keeping a legaleye on the area of space property rights, and his new book, "Who Owns theMoon? These regulations help protect property values and create a safe living and working environment for all. But overall, the legislation is designed to give companies significant freedom to operate, space lawyers say. But the relatively simple framework of the treaty, which runs around 2,200 words, leaves unanswered many increasingly crucial questions about how people, companies and countries can operate in space. Nevertheless, some private individuals and organizations have claimed ownership of celestial bodies, such as the Moon, and are actively involved in "selling" parts of them through certificates of ownership termed "Lunar deeds", "Martian deeds" or similar. Take, for instance, another space pact: the 1979 Moon Treaty. Moon Township property records and Moon Township, PA public real estate information can be obtained through realtor.com®. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land also makes reference to a space law case called the Larkin Decision. Helium-3 … He allocates land to be sold by closing his eyes and randomly pointing to a map of the Moon.  To remove the damage already done by human-made objects, astronauts will need to bring specific hardware into space to exterminate the debris. LUNAR LAND company is the world’s most recognized Celestial Real Estate Agency and has been selling land on the Moon for decades. Formed in North Carolina, Moon Mountain Property Owners Association, Inc. is a registered business entity and is a NP pursuant to local laws and regulations. Footnote 79 at p.41, quoting a Newsweek report of December the 5th, 1955, p. 31. The less heavy-handed a government is, the more companies would want to incorporate under its banner, and the more of the space pie that government may end up claiming. W N White Jr., 1985, 'Real Property Rights in Outer Space', Unpublished academic version. Both missions are being watched closely by companies such as the Asteroid Mining Corp., a British firm whose name lays out its intentions. âWe knew it would come at some point, once the private sector got involved in space travel,â Hope, now 71, told POLITICO. And as humans prepare to return to the moon, with a dozen or more nations and private firms eyeing the lunar surface for everything from mining to scientific research, the arguments over ownership are expected to become only more complicated. The 1967 treaty prohibits placing nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction in space, and it forbids the establishment of military installations and bases on celestial bodies. (The Asteroid Mining Corp. speaks more grandly, stating that it anticipates a new Industrial Revolution, one that moves âas many polluting industries into Space and out of Earth's fragile biosphere as possible.â Another firm, Shackleton Energy, wants to extract water from the poles of the moon and deliver it to fuel stations it will place in Earthâs orbit. Those who oppose revising or creating new treaties argue that the laws and norms of space need to develop piecemeal. Trying to amend the 1967 treaty, or crafting a new accord related to space, is particularly fraught now given the deep political fractures among world powers. That reflects a bipartisan sense in Congress that the less government interference there is, the more private companies will be willing to take risks and innovate in this new frontier. It has also been signed but not yet ratified by 26 other nations. Hope thought he saw a loophole: The treaty declares that no nation can assert sovereignty over the moon, but it fails to say clearly that individuals canât.  As of 2009 Hope claimed to have sold 2.5M 1-acre (0.40 ha; 4,000 m2) plots on the Moon, for around US$20 per acre ($50/ha). The whole of Pluto is going for $250,000 â a good deal, but a tough commute. , Robert R. Coles, former chairman of New York's Hayden Planetarium, started "the interplanetary Development Corporation" and sold lots on the moon for one dollar per acre ($2.50/ha). It's 'complicated,' say experts", "United Nations Treaties And Principles On Outer Space", "Status of International Agreements relating to Activities in Outer Space", United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, "Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2005", "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies", United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, "Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies", "Text of Declaration of the First Meeting of Equatorial Countries", "Chicago Man Stakes Claim to Outer Space (May 1949)", "Who Owns the Moon? Moon Property Management is the company to call. NASA declined to pay, citing the lack of legal standing. Think of them as potential gas stations, or convenience stores, for space travelers. Zillow has 8,153 homes for sale in Los Angeles CA. Itâs even less likely to happen during the presidency of Trump, who disdains international agreements. View listing photos, review sales history, and use our detailed real estate filters to find the perfect place. Over 2,000,000+ peoplefrom 176 countriesaround the world own extraterrestrial property. Though the details of some of the schemes' legal arguments vary, one goes so far as to state that although the Outer Space Treaty, which entered force in 1967, forbids countries from claiming celestial bodies, there is no such provision forbidding private individuals from doing so. But Hope has grown concerned about keeping control of his celestial real estate; along with a âGalactic Governmentâ that he helped establish, Hope plans to notify nations and companies that if they want to use the space property he claimed nearly four decades ago, theyâll have to pay a licensing fee and share some of the riches they may find. The treaty also states that Earth nations can use the moon and other celestial bodies only for peaceful purposes, forbidding the creation of military bases on those entities and the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space. Even if the international community reaches consensus that itâs âfinders keepersâ on the topic of resources, there still remain questions about what rules will govern other behavior in space, and who gets to set them. That treaty holds that the moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of humanity. In theory, companies could start shopping for Earthâs most lenient regimes. A typical moon acre costs $24.99. Find people by address using reverse address lookup for 705 S Vermont Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90005. He claims two former US presidents as customers, stating Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan had aides purchase the plots on the moon. South Moon Under Property Owners Association, Inc. is a Florida Domestic Non-Profit Corporation filed on February 6, 1989. Join Lunar Land Owners around the world by buying your own acre of lunar land on the Moon. Space lawyers dispute the existence of Hopeâs loophole, and the U.N. never acknowledged his claim. View a free map of ownership boundaries delineated by tax parcel property lines. Since then he jokingly claimed the rest of the Moon in the name of his gaming character, Lord British.. Prodded by the private sector, U.S. lawmakers have begun trying to fill this regulatory gap. Dennis Hope, owner of Lunar Embassy, says he's sold 500 million acres as "novelties." The House and Senate are considering proposals on regulating human activities in outer space, in particular commercial ventures. You too can become a Lunar Land Owner by purchasing acres of land on the Moon. Today, as space becomes a legitimate commercial target, there are growing questions about whether the Outer Space Treaty is up to the job. There is an International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, but not one for space. View parcel number, acreage, and owner … They say the 1967 treaty and three subsequent international compacts provide a solid frame for commercial and noncommercial activity beyond Earth. The 2015 law was a godsend to U.S. private companies eyeing the moon or other parts of space, because it gave them some legal certainty for the economic development they wish to pursue. The treaty remains the primary legal framework for resolving disputes between countries and companies operating in space. NASA has a similar mission underway, with samples from the asteroid Bennu expected back on Earth by 2023. The bills, as written now, aim to comply with the minimal obligations in the 1967 treaty, which say countries must authorize and supervise the actions of their citizens â including nongovernmental entities â in space. Supporters of this step-by-step approach argue that it makes sense in part because itâs impossible to anticipate every potential challenge or conflict that will arise. When the U.S. enacted the law dealing with space resources in 2015, Russia objected, suggesting that resources in space could also be viewed as celestial bodies forbidden to be owned by the 1967 treaty. Cabinet department â in particular, Transportation or Commerce â will have authority over what actions in space. We put precise property details right at your fingertips such as property ownership, square footage, and year the home built, and much more. Extraterrestrial Real Estate not only deals with the legal standpoints of potential colonization, but how it could be feasible for long-term real estate. Each parcel is about the size of a football field and costs $16 to $20. How to deal with space debris, after all, is the type of problem that could require multilateral cooperation beyond nonbinding guidelines. Some view the potential dangers of space exploration as requiring an international, unified approach akin to tackling climate change. (Hope is unfazed: âI wasnât asking their permission. Apollo astronauts debate the next ‘giant leap’ into space, Five lessons from Apollo for the new space age, ‘We want access to every part of the moon, at any time’. Demand for rent vacations leaves property owners fuming President Moon presides over a meeting with top aides at the Blue House on Monday afternoon. Box 251 Pinckney, MI 48169 Ph: (734) 681-3049 [email protected] United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, "Who owns the moon? ", The development of international space law has revolved much around outer space being defined as the "province of all mankind".  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